Article III - The Judiciary

Section 1. - Establisment

The judicial Power of the Government, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2. - Powers

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the Government, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;

—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;

—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime and space Jurisdiction;

—to Controversies to which the Government shall be a Party;

—to Controversies between two or more Level 0 States;

—between Citizens of different States,

—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

The Judicial power of the Government shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3. - Treason

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason up to lifelong imprisonment, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture.

Section 4. - Limits

There shall be no punishment of crimes beyond life imprisonment. Neither the Government nor the States will have the power to end a life as a punishment of crimes.

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